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Index des articles > Divers > Le radon c'est quoi ?

Article posté par Comité


La Commission de recherche et d'information indépendantes sur la radioactivité (CRIIRAD) est une association loi de 1901 française agréée dans le cadre de la protection de l'environnement. Elle conduit des études et des analyses dans le domaine de la radioactivité. Elle a été créée en mai 1986 par Michèle Rivasi, depuis députée européenne d'Europe Écologie, à la suite de l'accident de Tchernobyl, et continue de suivre les conséquences de cette catastrophe en France et à l'étranger.

Elle est la seule organisation de ce type en France. (source: Wikipédia)


Alors consultons le site de la CRIIRAD

http://www.criirad.org/

l'article sur Dépistages Radon




La CRIIRAD effectue depuis 15 ans des contrôles de la teneur de l'air en radon.

Habitations, bâtiments publics, lieux de travail...


Le Radon : caractéristiques et origine
Il appartient à la famille des gaz rares (hélium, néon, krypton...) et en possède les propriétés chimiques : inodore, incolore, sans saveur, ne réagissant pas chimiquement avec les autres éléments. C'est le seul gaz rare à être naturellement radioactif. Il provient de la chaîne de désintégration de l'uranium 238, naturellement présent dans toute l'écorce terrestre. Le radon 222 est le descendant direct du radium 226.

Son accumulation
Le radon émane du sol et se dilue rapidement dans l'air extérieur. Sa concentration moyenne est alors de l'ordre de 10 Bq/m3 en France (beaucoup plus à proximité des gisements uranifères et des secteurs miniers).
Il va par contre s'accumuler dans tous les espaces qui sont peu ou mal aérés : les cavités naturelles mais aussi les habitations. Cette accumulation représente un risque pour la santé.
La CRIIRAD est un organisme indépendant


Le radon dans les habitations
Le radon s'infiltre dans les habitations par les fissures, les jointures, les canalisations... Il provient principalement du sous-sol (roches, failles, eaux....), mais aussi des matériaux de construction qui contiennent, en plus ou moins grandes quantités, du radium. Lorsque les émanations sont importantes et/ou le renouvellement d'air insuffisant, le radon s'accumule, pouvant atteindre dans certains cas des teneurs très élevées.

Les zones à risque
En France, la cartographie réalisée récemment par l'IRSN* détermine des zones à fort risque d'exposition pour les populations. Ces zones correspondent à un sol contenant des roches riches en uranium (roches magmatiques, en particulier les granites). Les régions les plus fortement touchées sont le Limousin, le Massif Central, la Bretagne et la Corse. Cependant, de nombreuses anomalies ont été relevées en terrain sédimentaire, en dehors de ces zones (cf. Etudes CRIIRAD).


Les risques pour la santé
L'inhalation du radon et surtout de ses descendants radioactifs provoque des lésions au niveau des cellules pulmonaires, ce qui augmente le risque de développer un cancer du poumon. Le risque augmente avec la concentration et la durée d'exposition.

Le ministère de l'Environnement aux Etats-Unis conseille d'agir dès que la concentration dépasse 150 Bq/m3. Sur un plan international, la CIPR (Commission Internationale de Protection Radiologique) recommande un seuil d'intervention entre 200 Bq/m3 et 600 Bq/m3. Elle considère que passer 80% du temps dans un habitat à 200 Bq/m3, peut conduire à la survenue d'un cas de cancer du poumon supplémentaire pour 5 000 personnes exposées.

Le radon serait la deuxième cause de mort par cancer du poumon (après le tabac). Il y aurait, en France, entre 3000 et 5 000 victimes du radon par an.

Pour tout renseignement complémentaire ou demandes particulières :
Service Analyses et informations sur le Radon
contact : Julien SYREN 04 75 41 82 50




L'image ci-dessous provient d'une autre source d'information :

http://www.carevox.fr/sante-naturelle-57/article/pollution-protegez-vous-du-radon

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[ Imprimer cet article ]



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